Most expensive illustrated manuscript
Codex Hammer / Codex Leicester
30802500 US dollar(s)
United States (New York city)
An illustrated manuscript by Leonardo da Vinci (Italy) known as the Codex Hammer (or Codex Leicester as it has been renamed back to its original title) in which he predicted the invention of the submarine and the steam engine, was sold for a record $30,802,500 (£19,246,489) at Christie's, New York, USA on 11 November 1994. The only Leonardo manuscript in private hands, it was bought by Bill Gates (USA) (see Richest man), who re-named it with its original title Codex Leicester after the sale.

Compiled about 1508-1510, the manuscript is a synthesis of Leonardo's views on nature, dealing with hydrostatics, hydrodynamics, hydraulic engineering, geology to palaeontology and from astronomy to meteorology.