- -40 degree(s) Celsius
- Antarctica (Antarctica)
During a study of the emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) at a breeding colony in Pointe Géologie, Terre Adélie, Antarctica, on 4–29 June 2008, the average air temperature recorded was -17.6 degrees Celsius (0.32 degrees Fahrenheit); the mean temperature of the ice, meanwhile, was -29.1 degrees Celsius (-20.3 degrees Fahrenheit). During three days of this study, the air temperature dipped below -20 degrees Celsius (-4 degrees Fahrenheit), at which point the sky and ice temperatures over-ranged beyond the recording capabilities of the camera equipment, exceeding -45 degrees Celsius (-49 degrees Fahrenheit). It's widely acknowledged that emperor penguins have to occasionally endure air temperatures as low as -40 degrees Celsius (-40 degrees Fahrenheit) and beyond, as well as wind gusts that can reach in excess of 150 kilometres (90 miles) per hour.