Deepest dive by a crewed vessel
Victor Vescovo
10925 metre(s)
Not Applicable ()

Private equity investor,former naval officer and explorer Victor Vescovo (USA) descended solo into the"Eastern Pool" of the Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench – Earth's lowest known point – in the deep-sea submersible Limiting Factor on 28 April 2019 and 1 May 2019. The maximum depth, averaged from pressure readings taken by a pair of calibrated CTD sensors installed on the submarine, was 10,925 metres (35,843 feet), with a standard deviation of 4.1 metres (13 feet 5 inches). This was the fourth dive in Vescovo's "Five Deeps Expedition" in which he set out to become the first person to visit the deepest point of Earth's five oceans; he completed this mission on 24 August 2019 after successfully reaching the bottom of the Arctic Ocean's Molloy Hole/Deep.

Of the four pressure readings gleaned from the two descents, thegreatest depth recorded by one of the CTD sensors was 10,929 m (35,856 ft) onthe first dive and the least was 10,920 m (35,826 ft) on the second dive.

A third dive was conducted on 3 May 2019, piloted bythesubmersible’s builder, Patrick Lahey, and accompanied by a DNV-GL inspectorfrom Germany, Jonathan Struwe. The average pressure readings indicated theyreached a peak depth of 10,924 m (35,839 ft) on that dive.

All the dives were performed in the deep-sea submersible Limiting Factor, which was developed by TritonSubmarines and whose commercial certification and diving depths were validatedby international maritime authority DNV-GL.

Vescovo worked with a host of engineers, scientists and deep-seadiving specialists on the Five Deeps Challenge, including Captain Don Walsh (USA,retired US Navy), who along with Jacques Piccard (Switzerland) became the first people toreach the bottom of the Challenger Deep on 23 January 1960 in the Trieste bathyscaphe. James Cameron (Canada) made the first solodive to the bottom of the Challenger Deep in 2012 in his Deepsea Challenger toa reported depth of 10,908 m (35,787 ft).

Details of the five dives of the Five Deeps Expedition are asfollows:

- Atlantic Ocean: 19 Dec 2018: Puerto Rico Trench: 8,376 m (27,480ft)

- Southern Ocean: 3 Feb 2019: South Sandwich Trench: 7,434 (24,390ft)

- Indian Ocean: 5 Apr 2019: Java Trench: 7,192 m (23,596 ft)

- Pacific Ocean: 28 Apr 2019: Challenger Deep (deepest point onEarth): 10,925 m (35,843 ft)

- Arctic Ocean: 24 Aug 2019: Molloy Deep: 5,550 m (18,209 ft)

Vescovo has also achieved the Explorers' Grand Slam (LastDegree), which involves climbing the Seven Summits (the highest mountain oneach continent) and reaching the North and South Poles.

The Challenger Deep is located in the South Pacific Oceanapproximately 300 km (186 mi) southwest of Guam.