- Venera 13
- 127 minute(s)
- Not Applicable ()
The Venera 13 lander (USSR/Russia) touched down on the surface of Venus at 03:57 UTC on 1 March 1982. Given the brutally harsh atmosphere of the planet, the lander was only expected to survive for about 30 minutes before being overwhelmed by the furnace-like heat and crushing pressure. Thanks to its extremely rugged design (it more closely resembled a deep-sea submarine than it did the landers that have been sent to Mars or the Moon), it managed to keep transmitting data until 06:04 UTC, 127 minutes later. This broke the endurance record of 110 minutes set by the USSR's Venera 12's lander on 29 December 1978, and easily exceeded the 57-minute endurance of its twin lander, Venera 14.
The landing site was an area known as the Phoebe Regio. The lander's on-board instruments recorded hurricane-force winds, an ambient temperature of 457°C (854°F) and an atmospheric pressure of 89 atm (9 MPa) – equivalent to the pressure about 1 km (0.62 mi) below the surface of the ocean. Its other instruments were able to take photos of the surface, examine the chemical composition of the atmosphere, and record the sounds of an alien world.