- Spix's macaw, Cyanopsitta spixii
- 0 (in the wild) total number
- Brazil ()
Based on their current status as of April 2020, the world's rarest species of parrot is the Spix's macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii), which is listed as Extinct in the Wild according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. Native to Brazil, the last sighting of a Spix's macaw in the wild was in 2016, and before that in 2000; it's now believed that the most recent bird was, in fact, an escaped captive. There are, however, several dozen of these birds still in captivity, including around 100 Spix's macaws that are part of a breeding programme, with plans well underway to begin reintroduction into Brazil in an attempt to reverse their current status.
Key causes for the eradication of the Spix's macaw in the wild are logging and agriculture, leading to the destruction of its gallery woodland habitat and trapping for the pet trade.
There are several other contenders for the title of rarest parrot that are currently listed as Critically Endangered, but that may too have passed into extinction without us yet knowing. These include the orange-bellied parrot (Neophema chrysogaster of Australia with an estimated 20-25 individuals in the wild; the glaucous macaw (Anodorhynchus glaucus) of South America, not reliably seen since the 1960s and listed as possibly extinct with a total population of 0-20; the New Caledonia lorikeet (Charmosyna diadema), last seen in 1987 and possibly extinct with an estimated 0-49 remaining; and the Sinú parakeet (Pyrrhura subandina) from Colombia, last seen in 1949 and also considered possibly extinct with 1-49 individuals based on the most recent data.