Most dangerous sea urchin

Most dangerous sea urchin
Toxopneustes pileolus, Flower urchin
United Kingdom
Not applicable

The flower urchin (Toxopneustes pileolus) of the Indo-Pacific region is widely regarded as the most dangerous sea urchin. Venom delivered by the pedicellaria (small pincer-like organs) that cover the urchin's hard shell (test) can cause contractions in smooth muscle which lines many major organs, including cardiac (heart) tissue. This can lead to severe pain, respiratory problems and even paralysis. Although there have been reported fatalities of swimmers who have drowned after being stung by these urchins, none have been scientifically verified to date.