- USSR ()
Buran (Snowstorm in Russian) was the Soviet's answer to the US space shuttle. It was only launched into Earth orbit once on 15 November 1988 before its budget was cut. This two-orbit flight and landing happened completely under computer control, as there were no cosmonauts on board. Of the further two Buran orbiters under construction, neither was completed. The Buran orbiter measured 36.37m long (119.3 ft) and had a mass of 105,000 kg (231,000 lb).