The world's smallest elephant is the Borneo pygmy, which is a sub-species of, and 30 % smaller than, the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). An adult male measures 1.7-2.6 m (5 ft 6 in-8 ft 6 in) tall, whereas the female is 1.5-2.2 m (4 ft 11 in-7 ft 2 in) in height. The average estimated weight is 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). The current population is under 2,000, all living in Borneo, Malaysia, where they were confirmed as being a separate sub-species in September 2003, following DNA research funded by the World Wildlife Fund.
This officially increases the number of sub-species of the Asian elephant to four, along with Sri Lankan, Indian and Sumatran. See 'Largest mammal on land' for comparisons to the African elephant (Loxodonta africana).
See note from J.Payne on the Latin name "Strictly speaking, in scientific circles, it does not yet have a latin name, because the recently published data have not been used in a scientific paper to argue that there should be a special name for this type of elephant. However, it can be called Elephas maximums borneensis, because that was the name used for the Borneo elephant in a paper published in 1950 in Ceylon."
The tusks (in the males only) measure 0.5 - 1.7 m (1 ft 6 in-5 ft 6 in) long and weigh up to 15 kg (33 lb).
Comments below may relate to previous holders of this record.