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  • Who: Colossus

  • What: First digital programmable electronic computing devices

  • Where: United Kingdom

Designed by a team of British engineers led by Tommy Flowers, the Colossus computers were used to decipher communications between German military commanders towards the end of the Second World War. The first model began its work in February 1944, using vacuum tubes, predecessors of transistors, to perform calculations for code breaking. They were the first digital programmable electronic computing devices.


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